Opinions differ on the scope of the mechanism for promoting action on climate change and supporting sustainable development referred to in Article 6(4). While some countries, including Brazil, want the cdm project-based approach to continue, others support a broader mechanism including programmes and sector-wide approaches.  While the other two approaches focus on cooperation in the implementation of climate change measures, the range of possibilities for cooperation referred to in Article 6(8) is much wider. They include, in addition to climate protection and adaptation to climate change, technology transfer and capacity-building measures. How these approaches are to work has yet to be agreed – the details will be concretized in the coming years through the development of a framework of non-market approaches. In Paris, the parties agreed on a framework and general objectives for cooperation mechanisms. It is not clear how these objectives will be achieved and how the mechanisms will work. Both of these issues are addressed in the current climate negotiations, marked by different political positions and many outstanding questions about technique, structure and design.  Cooperation mechanisms must also ensure the environmental integrity of the cooperation and transfer process. This means that mechanisms should not be used to circumvent climate ambitions in the countries concerned. For example, the transfer of emission reductions from one country to another should not have the effect of reducing countries` respective climate change efforts compared to what they would have been without the cooperation mechanism. However, considerable progress was made in Madrid on technical issues. On the positive side, it should also be noted that on the last day of the conference, a group of countries led by Costa Rica and Switzerland launched the “San José Declaration”, which sets quality standards for the integrity of Article 6 transactions and quickly enjoys the support of 31 countries.
It remains to be seen whether the principles agreed in the declaration can shape the negotiations on the rules referred to in Article 6 and help to overcome the political differences that exist. The ongoing negotiations will be decisive for the future role of market mechanisms and will largely determine how the parties can cooperate in the implementation of their national contributions (NCPC). The international cooperation referred to in Article 6 shall aim to strengthen ambition. . . .